Nowadays, as maximizing return on investment and minimizing cost are of paramount importance in engineering projects, advanced geospatial technologies capable of acquiring accurate data have emerged to meet such urgent needs, among which Real-time Kinematic (RTK) rover stations play an essential role in providing noteworthy solutions for precision agriculture, construction projects, resource exploration, etc. Given the extensive applications of base stations, this article aims to explore what rover station is and its profound significance for various industrial sectors.
What Is a Rover Station?
Generally, an RTK rover station works in combination with a static base station deployed over a point with fixed coordinates to offer high precision positioning data. Thus, before delving into the concept and the operating principle of a rover station, it is essential to understand the role of a base station.
According to the Radio Regulations (Edition of 2020) published by International Telecommunication Union, a base station is a "land station in the land mobile service". At its most basic level, a base station commonly refers to a GPS receiver placed at an accurately known fixed location, serving to derive correction information for nearby portable GPS receivers. In the absence of these corrections, the precision and accuracy of the GPS receivers' location data would be significantly compromised. Here comes the rover station. Receiving the correction data sent by the base station, the rover station is capable of rectifying any discrepancies detected, thereby enhancing the overall accuracy of the position data.
Building upon the essential features of a GPS rover, the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover has distinguished itself as a cutting-edge solution by its unparalleled global constellation coverage. By harnessing the power of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology, the FJD Trion V1 Series transcends the limitations of conventional GPS systems, ensuring seamless and accurate positioning data across the globe. Besides the robust GNSS signal tracking with 965 channels, the integration of RTK technology further improves the performance of the FJD Trion V1 Series, enabling it to deliver centimeter-level accuracy in real time even in harsh environments. This revolutionary combination of GNSS and RTK technologies ensures that our product not only meets but exceeds the expectations of commercial users who demand the highest level of precision and reliability in positioning systems.
Why Is RTK Rover Station Crucial for High-Precision Positioning?
Before reaching a GNSS receiver on the ground, satellite signals penetrate through several layers of the Earth's atmosphere, including the ionosphere, which unavoidably introduces negative propagation effects and measurement errors that cannot be rectified by the GNSS receiver alone. These errors significantly degrade the accuracy of position calculations, limiting a standalone receiver's output to meter-level accuracy. However, these errors can be mitigated by applying the RTK technique and deploying a second GNSS receiver in close proximity. The rover receiver can precisely estimate all ambiguities inherent in its position calculations by utilizing the precise position and satellite data transmitted by the base station to exclude atmospheric errors from its calculations and obtain more accurate position estimations.
However, a typical RTK survey with a static base receiver and a mobile RTK rover station is still not enough to offer users centimeter-level accuracy and therefore an unprecedented insight into work progress. Complex mathematical algorithms within the stations play a crucial role in these high-precision calculations.
The first aspect is the estimation of pseudo-range. Pseudo-range refers to the approximate distance between a satellite and a receiver, determined by considering the time it takes for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver. The next crucial aspect in achieving high-precision calculations is the analysis of carrier phase measurements, which entails a more intricate and advanced approach to determine the distance between the satellite and GNSS receivers. This advanced analysis of carrier phase measurements allows for highly accurate positioning calculations, enabling GNSS receivers like the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover to achieve an impressive accuracy of up to 2.5 cm. This exceptional level of accuracy ensures unprecedented insight into work progress and provides users with the confidence to rely on centimeter-level positioning for their applications in various fields.
Application Scenarios of Rover Stations
Capable of delivering high accuracy in harsh environments, base stations have become a perfect solution to many industries.
In the realm of precision agriculture practices, the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover serves as a powerful tool for providing accurate positioning data for farming equipment, which enables farmers and farming corporates to optimize field operations by reducing input costs and increase crop yields.
For instance, when it comes to auto-steering systems, compatible with the FJD AT2 Auto Steer System, the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover is able to ensure precise navigation of tractors and other agricultural machinery, minimizing overlaps and gaps in field operations.
In the land surveying sector, the RTK rover station like the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover plays a role of paramount importance in topographic surveys. The rover station enables surveyors to gather accurate elevation data, thereby generating comprehensive topographic maps for various applications, including land development, construction projects, environmental assessment, etc. As for the boundary survey, surveyors can accurately ascertain property boundaries and construction area, which in turn aids in resolving disputes and controlling land usage, and ensuring compliance with zoning regulations.
In the resource exploration sector, the RTK rover station enables the integration of advanced monitoring systems, such as remote sensing and geophysical surveying equipment, into the exploration process. These systems can transmit data to a control center, where experts can analyze the information and make informed decisions on the best course of action. Such real-time monitoring and control capability is highly beneficial for the efficiency and sustainability of resource exploration operations.
What's more, resource exploration often involves working in hazardous and unpredictable environments, where reliable communication channels for emergency situations are essential for the safety of exploration teams. In the event of an accident or natural disaster, both base stations and RTK rovers can facilitate rapid communication with emergency response teams, saving lives and minimizing damage to equipment and infrastructure.
Advantages of FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover
IMU Based High-Accuracy Tilt Compensation
Even with robust GNSS signals, RTK rover stations can still easily be affected by factors such as multipath errors, signal blockages, and atmospheric disturbances. To overcome these challenges and provide a more accurate, reliable, and efficient solution, the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover incorporates an innovative INS-based high-accuracy tilt compensation technology to accurately measure and compensate for tilt errors in real time.
Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation system based on the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which is utilized to determine the position, velocity, and attitude of an RTK system. In the inertial navigation system of RTK, a three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis gyroscope are commonly employed as the primary sensors of the IMU. The accelerometer measures the acceleration of the RTK system, which is used to calculate the velocity and position. The gyroscope, on the other hand, measures the angular velocity of the RTK system, which is used to calculate the attitude.
As an essential component in the measurement of angular velocity and attitude data, RTK systems in practical applications may require users to move the equipment so as to recalibrate, and it may be difficult to achieve the specified accuracy. FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover has been upgraded with a new INS algorithm, effectively suppressing error accumulation issues, maintaining stability in stationary states, optimizing the initialization process, and achieving seamless calibration, thus eliminating the need for a shift in setup location.
Stability and Reliability
The incorporation of premium-grade battery cells offers a high energy density and superior durability, enabling the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK Rover to uninterruptedly operate for up to 10 hours. Moreover, capable of operating under a wide temperature range, the FJD Trion V1 Series RTK is able to handle extreme climates.
Regulations Articles Edition of 2020, International Telecommunication Union,
2. Development of the Base Station Transceiver Subsystem in the CDMA Mobile System, ETRI Journal, volume 19, number 3, October 1997